See general information about how to correct material in RePEc. This youth bulge is truly unprecedented: Recent events in the region provide an apt reminder that the prevailing development model has outlived its usefulness. Egypt and Jordan, by virtue of their strategic location, have derived significant external rents through foreign aid.
While the public sector generates high wage jobs for nationals, the private sector relies mostly on expatriate workers who are more willing to be part of a competitive job market. Firstly, Middle Eastern economies are not generating enough jobs for its educated youth. This is largely an artefact of an economic structure that is heavily reliant on external windfalls and dominated by the public sector.
The interests of governing coalitions have proved more enduring than the force of ideology. It examines labour supply, its impact on employmentsocial protection and social dialogue.
Neither socialism of the s and s nor the neo-liberal economic reform of s has been able to dismantle this system of centralised control, discretion and privilege. His death on 4 January  brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, The economics of the arab spring and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian Revolution.
Up untilfor example, around 67 per cent of the total exports in Syria consisted of fuels. For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: In the aftermath of the Iraq Warit was used by various commentators and bloggers who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization.
Economic growth should ensure quality jobs and working dignity of women and men. In the countries with the lowest Internet penetration and the limited role of social networks, such as Yemen and Libyathe role of mainstream electronic media devices — cell phones, emails, and video clips e.
Second, and perhaps more importantly, recent happenings in the region call into question the very sustainability of a development model based on a leviathan state and greased by oil and aid windfalls. Where oil is scarce, foreign aid takes over.
Arab citizens in the processtraded political freedom for government jobs, public services, subsidies, low taxes and hand outs. The functioning of this system rests on a heavy dose of subsidies, economic controls, and a variety of other uncompetitive practices.
This is clearly a failing of both the education system and economic structure. The functioning of this system rests on a heavy dose of subsidies, economic controls and a variety of other uncompetitive practices. Not only a growing number of these are young, but also female and educated. Timeline of the Arab Spring Events leading up to the Arab Spring[ edit ] Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts during the three years leading up to the Arab Spring, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa inwhere protests continued for many months.
Secondly, whatever limited economic opportunities do exist, they are rationed by connection rather than competition. The region needs a new social and economic paradigm that is based on a competitive, entrepreneurial, and inclusive private sector.
Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. At least, in the oil-rich Gulf, this results in a perverse division of labor between the public and private sectors.
Up untilfor example, around 67 percent of the total exports in Syria consisted of fuels. Social media sites were a platform for different movements formed by many frustrated citizens, including the "April 6 Youth Movement" organized by Ahmed Mahed, which set out to organize and promote a nationwide labor strike, and which inspired the later creation of the "Progressive Youth of Tunisia".
Resource windfalls from oil and aid have given rise to an adverse political economy and sustained a social pact that trades welfare distribution for regime security.
The largest, most organised demonstrations often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday afternoon prayers.The Arab Spring and its subsequent impact on a global scale that sparked widespread protests against governments and policies, is a watershed in the evolution of socio-political movements.
George Orwell in his “ Animal Farm ” through allusions had prophesised this very predicament across nations where the poor, overworked and. THERE were six Arab countries in which massive peaceful protests called for hated rulers to go in the spring of Other than Tunisia, none of the uprisings came to a happy end.
Libya and Yemen. The Arab Spring has brought into sharper focus the profound implications of the region's youth bulge. Long before the current uprisings, one of the Arab world's leading economic minds, Tarek Yousef, co-edited a book with a prophetic title: The Generation in Waiting (Brookings Institution Press, ).
The Arab Spring has led to very different outcomes across the Arab world. I present a highly stylized model of the Arab Spring to better understand these differences. In this model, dictators from the ethnic or religious majority group concede power if their country is oil-poor, but can stay in.
A singular failure of the Arab world is the absence of a private sector that is independent, competitive, and integrated with global markets. This paper argues that private sector development is both a political and regional challenge.
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